Listed here are standard formats and examples for basic information that is bibliographic by the American Psychological Association (APA). To learn more about the APA format, see http://www.apastyle.org.
Your variety of works cited has to start at the conclusion of the paper on a page that is new the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author’s last name, with the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Just the initials of the first and middle names are given. In the event that author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A, An, or The.
For dates, spell out the names of months in the text of the paper, but abbreviate them into the list of works cited, except for May, June, and July. Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and be consistent. With the style that is month-day-year make sure to add a comma following the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics?
When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined since most typewriters had absolutely no way to print italics. You should still underline the names of publications if you write a bibliography by hand. But, then publication names should be in italics as they are below if you use a computer. Check always along with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All APA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the first type of an entry should always be flush left, and the second and subsequent lines must certanly be indented 1/2″.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The APA guidelines specify using sentence-style capitalization for the titles of books or articles, so you should capitalize just the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions to this rule will be periodical titles and proper names in a title which will still be capitalized. The title that is periodical run in title case, and it is accompanied by the quantity number which, using the title, is also italicized.
When there is more than one author, use an ampersand (&) before the name associated with author that is last. If there are many more than six authors, list just the first one and use et al. for the remainder.
Position the date of publication in parentheses soon after the name of the author. Place a period of time following the closing parenthesis. Usually do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works within longer works.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of United States. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: a history of the heroes for the imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: a guide that is practical creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In This new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Format: Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: usually do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put an interval following the title. If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then provide the page range (in regular type) without “pp.” If the periodical does not use volume numbers, such as newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in the current schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, July 21). California town counts town to big quake. USA Today, 9, p. A1.
Kanfer, S. (1986, July 21). Heard any books that are good? Time, 113, 71-72.
Trillin, C. (1993, 15) february. Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Online document: Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from full URL
Note: When citing Internet sources, make reference to the precise document that is website. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) soon after the document title. Break a lengthy URL that would go to another line after a slash or before a period of time. essay writing service for college Continually check your references to online documents. There is no period following a URL. Note: If you cannot find a few of this information, cite what is available.
Devitt, T. (2001, August 2). Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html january
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom among us. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved June 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html
Note: If a document is contained within a big and complex website (such as for example that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization as well as the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.